This form continues to be used, especially by older people, and it is obligatory in certain circumstances such as telling the time, and in ordinal numbers. There is also a decimal counting system, which has become relatively widely used, though less so in giving the time, ages, and dates it features no ordinal numbers. This system is in especially common use in schools due to its simplicity, and in Patagonian Welsh. Whereas 39 in the vigesimal system is pedwar ar bymtheg ar hugain "four on fifteen on twenty" or even deugain namyn un "two score minus one" , in the decimal system it is tri deg naw "three tens nine".
Although there is only one word for "one" un , it triggers the soft mutation treiglad meddal of feminine nouns, where possible, other than those beginning with "ll" or "rh". There are separate masculine and feminine forms of the numbers "two" dau and dwy , "three" tri and tair and "four" pedwar and pedair , which must agree with the grammatical gender of the objects being counted.
The objects being counted appear in the singular, not plural form. Currently, there is no standardised or definitive form of the Welsh language, with significant differences in dialect marked in pronunciation, vocabulary and in points of grammar. An example of a pronunciation difference is the tendency in some southern dialects to palatalise the letter "s", e. Although popular understanding often splits Welsh into northern Gogledd and southern De Welsh, in reality significant variation exists within these areas.
The traditional classification of four Welsh 'languages', remains the most academically useful:. A fifth 'language' is Patagonian Welsh , which has developed since the start of Y Wladfa the Welsh settlement in Argentina in ; it includes Spanish loanwords and terms for local features, but a survey in the s showed that the language in Patagonia is consistent throughout the lower Chubut valley and in the Andes.
History of the Welsh language - Wikipedia
Dialectal classifications exist within the 'languages' such as the Cofi dialect. Introducing the Dialects  was accompanied by a cassette containing recordings of fourteen different speakers demonstrating aspects of different area dialects. The book also refers to the earlier Linguistic Geography of Wales  as describing six different regions which could be identified as having words specific to those regions. In the s, there was an attempt to standardise the Welsh language by teaching Cymraeg Byw "Living Welsh" — a colloquially-based generic form of Welsh.
Modern Welsh can be considered to fall broadly into two main registers —Colloquial Welsh Cymraeg llafar and Literary Welsh Cymraeg llenyddol. The grammar described here is that of Colloquial Welsh, which is used in most speech and informal writing. Literary Welsh is closer to the form of Welsh standardised by the translation of the Bible and is found in official documents and other formal registers, including much literature. As a standardised form, literary Welsh shows little if any of the dialectal variation found in colloquial Welsh. In addition, more archaic pronouns and forms of mutation may be observed in Literary Welsh.
In fact, the differences between dialects of modern spoken Welsh pale into insignificance compared to the difference between some forms of the spoken language and the most formal constructions of the literary language. Gareth King, author of a popular Welsh grammar, observes that "The difference between these two is much greater than between the virtually identical colloquial and literary forms of English". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mythology Matter of Britain Arthurian legend Mabinogion. Music and performing arts. History of the Welsh language. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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History of the Welsh language
List of Celtic-language media. Colloquial Welsh morphology and Literary Welsh morphology. This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Welsh language " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Archived from the original PDF on 30 March Retrieved 28 March Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 6 May Now, though 50, Patagonians are thought to be of Welsh descent, the number of Welsh speakers is believed to be between only 1, and 5, Today the province of Chubut, where most Welsh immigrants settled, has a population of , people.
Of these, some 50, can claim Welsh ancestry and 5, speak the Welsh language. Retrieved 21 August Retrieved 27 February Retrieved 16 September Great Britain As It Is. Retrieved 10 September Retrieved 7 June Retrieved 30 May The Welsh language has official status in Wales.
Retrieved 19 April The official languages of the Assembly are English and Welsh. Britons and their Languages".
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Wales and the Britons, — 1st ed. University of Wales Press. Wales and the Britons, — ". The American Historical Review. Retrieved 30 December Archived from the original PDF on 27 April Retrieved 5 June Key Statistics for Wales, March ". Retrieved 12 December Number of Welsh speakers falling". Diversity, Conflict, and Change , Clevedon, Avon: The existing phonology of English dialects compared with that of West Saxon speech , page 14, A.
Accessed 21 March ". Retrieved 23 May Nomis Official Labour Market Statistics. Office For National Statistics. Office for National Statistics.
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Retrieved 6 June Retrieved 4 April Arriva Trains Wales in Welsh. Archived from the original on 11 November A new law to promote the Welsh language has been unanimously passed by the Welsh Assembly. The measure makes Welsh an official language in Wales, and obliges public bodies and some private companies to provide services in it. A language commissioner will be appointed to enforce the measure and to protect the Welsh speakers' rights. Ministers hailed the vote as a "historic step forward for the Welsh language. Archived from the original on 22 September Powers confirming the official status of Welsh received Royal Assent yesterday.
The Welsh Language Measure will create the post of language commissioner and ensure services can be provided in Welsh. The chairwoman of the Welsh Language Board has been appointed the first Welsh language commissioner. Retrieved 21 January A 19th Century report that became controversial for condemning the Welsh language has been published online by the National Library of Wales.
A History of Wales. Retrieved 3 October Former pupils and teachers of Wales' first Welsh-medium school will gather to celebrate its 75th anniversary. Archived from the original on 5 October The school was established in and was the first Welsh-medium secondary school in Wales. It was originally located in Rhyl. Archived from the original on 23 September Archived from the original on 18 July Welsh is a subject in the national curriculum and is compulsory at all state schools in Wales, for pupils up to the age of In English-medium schools, it is taught as a second language, and in Welsh-medium schools, as the first language.
Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved 8 February Retrieved 10 May University of Wales Press: The distinction between the p- and q- languages reflects the modification of certain initial consonants which are harder in the q-family than the p-family. For example, Irish crann and Welsh pren , meaning tree; Irish capall , horse, is related to Welsh ebol , foal. By and large, no. In fact even the p-Celtic languages are not really mutually intelligible. A Welsh speaker especially if he is familiar with some of the archaic vocabulary of his own language can expect to read but perhaps not fully understand Cornish, but has difficulty understanding spoken Cornish.
Breton is accessible to Welsh speakers who have French for its differently borrowed words and sounds, and again especially to those familiar with archaic Welsh. It is certainly much easier for a Welsh speaker to learn Breton than it would be for a French speaker to do so. It is relatively easy for Welsh and Breton and Cornish speakers, even if they have none of the languages in common, to make themselves understood to each other with a bit of effort.
The same is not really true in my experience with Welsh and Gaelic speakers but then I have known difficulty in understanding Irish speakers of Welsh. There is some common vocabulary, although it is well disguised by different orthography and different pronunciation, and there seem to be sufficiently similar structures in the grammar that learning a Gaelic language should be easier for a Welsh speaker, or vice versa, than it might otherwise be.
The conventional answer to this question in the first half of the twentieth century would certainly be yes. The proportion of Welsh speakers in Wales has fallen consistently since there have been any sort of reliable statistics. Over the twentieth century the total number of speakers of Welsh has remained pretty much constant in the face of a sharp rise in the population.
There is perhaps less of an obvious consensus on the answer at the end of the century, although the long term prospects must be pretty bleak for any particular language with a small community of speakers, and particularly one like Welsh which both is devoid of great concentrations of speakers, and is surrounded by the particularly aggressive culture of the American and English speaking world. There is a question to keep one awake at nights.
go here It really rather depends what one means by speaking Welsh. The most consistently reliable statistics are those derived from the decennial United Kingdom National Census, which in Wales asks people whether they speak Welsh. This reports a figure of a few hundred thousand in a population which is rapidly approaching three million but is widely held to underestimate the figure for several reasons.
The principal reason is a reluctance of many people to admit to speaking Welsh, especially those who have an education in English and only informal knowledge of Welsh, and those especially in the South who speak dialects other than the esteemed North-Western dialect.